(Dates for Khmer rulers: Michael D. Coe, Angkor and the Khmer Civilization, 2003)
|Neolithic/Early Farming (before 500 BC)||Iron Age (after 500 BC)|
|Rice culture from 2300 BC. Stone axes, megaliths, cist graves, terraced burial mounds. Ornamental use of bronze from 1500 BC.||Dong-Son culture (Vietnam). Bronze drums. "Moon of Bali" (Indonesia). Plain of Jars (Laos).|
Table II. Before 1000 A.D.
|150 AD - 550 AD||550 AD - 800 AD||9th century||10th century|
|Indonesia||Buddhist and Hindu influences via trading states.||Shrivijaya (Sumatra)||775-864: Shailendra dynasty (central Java).
800: Borobudur, Mendut
|900: Lara Jonggrang (central Java)|
|Burma||Pyu kingdom (N)
Mon kingdom (S)
|832: Thais conquer Pyu capital
850-1120: Early Period (Pagan)
|Burmese peoples migrate from S. China into N. Burma|
|Thailand||Dvaravati Mon kingdom (S): 1, 2, 3, 4||Dvaravati Mon kingdom (S)||Tai peoples migrate from S. China into N. Thailand|
|Cambodia||Late Iron Age chiefdoms. "Funan" (Mekong delta). Angkor Borei, Oc Eo. Trade links with Rome, Ancient Near East, India, China||Early Kingdoms period. "Chenla." Sambor Prei Kuk (Ishanapura). Hindu, Buddhist sculptures.||802-835: Jayavarman II founds Khmer empire.
877-889: Indravarman I (Bakong).
889-900: Yasovarman I founds Angkor (East Baray)
|928-941: Jayavarman IV, capital at Koh Ker.
968: Banteay Srei
|Laos||Old City at Lingaparvata (later site of Wat Phu)|
|Dong Duong monastery complex||939: Viets (N) expel China|
Table III. 1000 A.D. - 1400 A.D.
|11th century||12th century||13th century||14th century|
|Indonesia||Rajendra Chola invades Srivijaya.||Kediri kingdom (East Java)||Singosari (Singhasari) kingdom (East Java); 1 2||Majapahit kingdom (Bali); 1, 2
Introduction of Islam via Aceh (North Sumatra).
|Burma||1044-1077: King Anawrahta of Pagan captures Mon capital and unifies Burma. Theravada Buddhism becomes official state religion. Golden Age of temple-building at Pagan. Karen drums||1120-1170: Middle Period (Pagan)
1170-1300: Late Period (Pagan)
|1287: Kublai Khan captures Pagan||1300-1500: Lan-Na conquer Burma, which splinters into separate states|
|Thailand||Khmer capture Dvaravati||ca. 1250-1438: Sukhothai (S); 1,
1275-1317: King Rama Kamheng. Thai alphabet
|1296-1556: Lan-Na kingdom; capital at Chiang Mai (N)
1350-1767: Ayutthaya (S); 1, 2
|Cambodia||1002-1049: Suryavarman I (Royal Palace, West Baray)
1050-1066: Udityavarman II (Baphuon)
1080-1107: Jayavarman VI (Phimai)
|1113-1150: Suryavarman II (Angkor Wat)
1177: Chams sack Angkor
|1181-1215: Jayavarman VII; Khmer empire at greatest extent.
Angkor Thom, Bayon.
1296: visit of Zhou Daguan
|Beginning of Khmer Post-Classic. Thais repeatedly invade. Theravada becomes state religion. Pali replaces Sanskrit.|
|Laos||Wat Phu||Wat Phu||1350-1707: Lan Sang founded by Khmer prince; capital at Luang Prabang (N)|
|Vietnam||1009-1224: Dai Viet ("Later Ly") dynasty (N)
1069: Chams move capital S. to Vijaya (Binh Dinh)
|Dai Viet (N)
|1225-1400: Tran dynasty (N)
1257: Viets repel Mongol invasion
Table IV. 1400 A.D. - 1800 A.D.
|15th century||16th century||17th century||18th century|
|Indonesia||1405-1407 Zheng He naval expedition visits Java.
Majapahit kingdom in decline.
|Islamic sultanates in Indonesia; Portuguese expeditions.||Dutch and British vie for control of the lucrative Indonesian spice trade.||1800: Dissolution of the VOC and formal Dutch takeover of the islands.|
|Burma||1498-1613: Portuguese traders and adventurers; Burmese sack Ayutthaya||Capital at Ava (Ratnapura)||1752-1823: Konbaung dynasty unifies N and S.
British, French, Dutch influence
1782-1819: King Badawpaya conquers Arakan, builds at Mingun. Mahamuni temple
|Thailand||1434: Emerald Buddha discovered in N
1461: Lan-na captures Sukhothai
|1551: Emerald Buddha taken to Laos
1558: Burmese capture Chiang Mai
1569: Burmese sack Ayutthaya, take spoils (including those from 1431 Thai sack of Angkor) to Burma
|Burmese dominate N||1767-1932: Bangkok Period (1,
1767: Burmese sack Ayutthaya again, but are driven out in 1777.
1778: Emerald Buddha taken back to Thailand
1782: Thais move capital to Bangkok (Wat Phra Kaeo, early phase)
|Cambodia||1431: Thais sack Angkor, take spoils to Ayutthaya. Khmer capital moves S. to area around Phnom Penh.||1528: Ang Chan I moves capital to Lovek||1600: Massacre of Spanish Garrison; unstable kingdom caught between Thailand and Vietnam||Viets conquer Mekong delta. Cambodia assumes roughly its modern boundary|
|Laos||Lan Sang||Lan Sang||1690: Lan Sang splits due to internal rivalries. S. capital at Vientiane||1778-1827: Vientiane becomes a Thai vassal state|
|Vietnam||1407: Chinese occupy the N but are expelled by Le Dynasty
1428-1539: Le Dynasty (N)
1471: Viets take over most of Champa
|1539-1787: Trinh Dynasty (N)
1558-1778: Nguyen Dynasty (S)
|1771: Tray Son Revolution|
Table V. 1800 A.D. - 2000 A.D.
|19th century (first half)||19th century (second half)||20th century (first half)||20th century (second half)|
|Indonesia||Dutch colonial period.
1811-1814: British invade Java during the Napoleonic Wars.
|Dutch colonial period.||1942: Japan occupies Indonesia during WW II
1950: Independence following WW II
|Muslim republic, with significant minorities on Bali (Hindu) and Sulawesi (Christian/Animist)|
|Burma||1824-1866: Anglo-Burmese wars.
1853: Capital at Mandalay
|1886-1935: British annex Burma to India||1947: Independence following WW II||1958-present: Various military governments|
|Thailand||Thais and Viets fight over Cambodia.
1832: Wat Pho
1851-1868: King Mongut (Rama IV), the king of "Anna and I" (Wat Phra Kaeo, later phase, 1, 2)
|1868-1910: King Chulalongkorn, tutored by Anna||1946-present: King Bhumipol||King Bhumipol|
|Cambodia||1834-1841: Viets briefly annex Cambodia.
1848-1860: King Ang Duong institutes reforms
|1863: Cambodia becomes French protectorate||1953: Independence||1975-1978: Khmer Rouge|
|Laos||1828: Thais sack Vientiane and destroy the S. kingdom. Luang Prabang, the N. kingdom, remains independent.||1893: French force Thais to renounce territorial claims in Laos.||1947: Independence, with capital at Vientiane||1975: Communists sieze power following Vietnam War|
|Vietnam||1802-1945: Nguyen Dynasty re-established, unifies Vietnam.
1830-1860: Viets execute over 30,000 Vietnamese Catholics, triggering French intervention
|1867: South Vietnam becomes French colony. Protectorate in North||1954: French defeated at Dien Bien Phu. Vietnam divided into Communist N. and non-Communist S.||1961-1973: Vietnam War. U.S. intervenes on behalf of S., then withdraws. 1975: North Vietnam conquers S.|