Cairo, Egypt (map)
The Citadel, located in Old Cairo East of the Nile, is a medieval fortification built by Saladin (1137-1193). Saladin, the ruler of Egypt and Syria, was honored by Christians and Muslims alike for his knightly prowess and courtesy. Saladin recovered Jerusalem from the Crusader Kings. He ended the III Crusade by a treaty with King Richard I the Lionheart which preserved Muslim rule over Jerusalem while granting religious access to the Christians.