Western Xia Dynasty, 1032 - 1227 AD
The Western Xia does not usually appear in the official lists of Chinese dynasties. It was a state, established by the Tangut tribes, that ruled the provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi (where Xi'an Tang Chang'an is located), and tiny Ningxia, during the Song period. The object illustrated here is large and impressive, but imperfect; for example, the outlined neck of the vessel cuts into its incised decoration at the upper left, and there is a mismatch at the upper right.
Black porcelain, as its name implies, was made from a dark paste that had to be fired at high temperatures, with careful control of the glaze. A piece like this might have been produced in Yaozhou (on a bad day) or other kilns in Shaanxi.